Compressed Sensing
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, April 2006

Suppose x is an unknown vector in Ropf m  (a digital image or signal); we plan to measure n general linear functionals of x and then reconstruct. If x is known to be compressible by transform coding with a known transform, and we reconstruct via the nonlinear procedure defined here, the number of measurements n can be dramatically smaller than the size m. Thus, certain natural classes of images with m pixels need only n=O(m 1/4 log 5/2 (m)) nonadaptive nonpixel samples for faithful recovery, as opposed to the usual m pixel samples. More specifically, suppose x has a sparse representation in some orthonormal basis (e.g., wavelet, Fourier) or tight frame (e.g., curvelet, Gabor)-so the coefficients belong to an lscr p  ball for 0<ples1. The N most important coefficients in that expansion allow reconstruction with lscr 2  error O(N 1/2-1 p/). It is possible to design n=O(Nlog(m)) nonadaptive measurements allowing reconstruction with accuracy comparable to that attainable with direct knowledge of the N most important coefficients. Moreover, a good approximation to those N important coefficients is extracted from the n measurements by solving a linear program-Basis Pursuit in signal processing. The nonadaptive measurements have the character of "random" linear combinations of basis/frame elements. Our results use the notions of optimal recovery, of n-widths, and information-based complexity. We estimate the Gel'fand n-widths of lscr p  balls in high-dimensional Euclidean space in the case 0<ples1, and give a criterion identifying near- optimal subspaces for Gel'fand n-widths. We show that "most" subspaces are near-optimal, and show that convex optimization (Basis Pursuit) is a near-optimal way to extract information derived from these near-optimal subspaces